Have you ever been curious as to how the human brain works allowing you to perform complex physical activities?
Similarly, you may have wondered how your body works at the smallest level of organization.
Examining the similarities and differences between cell types is particularly important to the fields of cell and molecular biology, because the principles learned from studying one cell type can be generalized to other cell types.
Research in cell biology closely is related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology and developmental biology.
The field of cell biology traditionally has focused on questions concerning how the various organelles work and work together, how these cellular processes are regulated and how the various cells within the organism communicate with each other.
Understanding the composition of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all the biological and medical sciences.
Most of the genetic information in the cell resides in the nucleus and is contained within the chromosomes (mitochondria also carry some DNA of their own).
The study of the microscopically visible stages of cell division during mitosis and meiosis generally is considered part of cell biology, while the actual submicroscopic activity of DNA replication and protein synthesis is considered part of molecular biology.
This process also is known as protein biosynthesis or protein translation.
Some proteins, such as those to be incorporated in membranes (membrane proteins) are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during synthesis and further processed in the Golgi apparatus.