This civilisation, which lasted for 1000 years, and is known as the Harappan culture, appears to have been the culmination of thousands of years of settlement. From around 1500 BC onwards, Aryan tribes from Afghanistan and Central Asia began to filter into northwest India.
Following the decline of the Mauryan Empire, a number of powerful kingdoms arose in central and south India, among them Satavahanas, Kalingas and Vakatakas hold precedence.
Later on these regions saw the rise of some of the greatest dynasties of South India in the form of the Cholas, Pandyas, Cheras, Chalukyas and Pallavas.
These go down to the Sea and separate India from the wooded valley of Irrawady, on the one hand, and the hilly tableland of Iran, on the other.
The Himalayas standing tall in breathtaking splendour are radiant in myth and mystery.
India is the name given to the vast peninsula which the continent of Asia throws out to the south of the magnificent mountain ranges that stretch in a sword like curve across the southern border of Tibet.
Shaped like an irregular quadrilateral, this large expanse of territory we call India, deserves the name of a subcontinent.This paved the way for the Muslim invasion into India during the early half of the eleventh century.The next Muslim ruler to invade India Mohammad Ghauri attacked India and after some futile resistance by the local leadership he founded a foreign empire in India.Persians, Greeks, Chinese nomads, Arabs, Portuguese, British and many others - the list of invaders who ruled India is long.Yet, none could crush the indomitable soul of Bharatvarsha!The next dynasty worth a mention is that of the Guptas.Although the Gupta Empire was not as large as the Maurya Empire, it kept North India politically united for more than a century from AD 335 to 455. The decline of the Guptas in North India, and the consequent rise of a large but ineffective number of regional powers made the political situation very fluid and unstable by the ninth century AD.Under him, large parts of India came under Muslim rule and very soon his successor Qutub-ud-din Aibak became the first of the sultans of Delhi.His was followed by the rule of the Khaljis and Tughlaq, also known as the Delhi Sultanate, who ruled over a large portion of North India and parts of South India until the coming in of the Lodis and Sayyids. buildings, which resulted in some of the greatest architecture in India, like the Taj Mahal at Agra.This apart, the large number of forts, palaces, gates, buildings, mosques, baolis (water tank or well) gardens, etc, forms the cultural heritage of the Mughals in India.The Mughals were also instrumental in establishing one of the most efficient administrative setups in India.