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The abstract section in a scientific paper is a concise digest of the content of the paper. A summary is a brief restatement of preceding text that is intended to orient a reader who has studied the preceding text.An abstract is intended to be self-explanatory without reference to the paper, but is not a substitute for the paper.Present only the most relevant ideas and get quickly to the point of the paper. This section explains how and, where relevant, when the experiment was done.
Scientific papers must be written clearly and concisely so that readers with backgrounds similar to yours can understand easily what you have done and how you have done it should they want to repeat or extend your work.
When writing papers for the biology department, you can assume that your audience will be readers like yourselves with similar knowledge.
For example, "Effects of Light and Temperature on the Growth of Four Species of Bacteria" would be correct.
The researcher would then include the names of the bacteria in the Materials and Methods section of the paper.
The present tense is most often used in the Introduction, Discussion and Conclusion sections of papers.
The paper should read as a narrative in which the author describes what was done and what results were obtained from that work.
Instead, "Effects of Several Environmental Factors on Growth of Populations of Escherichia coli " (if more than two or three factors were manipulated) would be appropriate.
The same applies if more than two or three organisms were studied.
The Introduction is the statement of the problem that you investigated.
It should give readers enough information to appreciate your specific objectives within a larger theoretical framework.