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For example: Only a few epidemiologic investigations have assessed the intake of chocolate products as part of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (Arts et al., 2002; di Giuseppe et al., 2008), whereas other studies have simply asked about chocolate intake as part of a lifestyle questionnaire (Lee & Paffenbarger, 1998; Paganini-Hill, Kawas, & Corrada, 2007).
In this section, relevant cognitive and social theories are discussed in order to (1) explain the occurrence of memory conformity and (2) describe factors that influence memory conformity.” 3.
For each of the four explanations, followed typical structure of: (a) definition; (b) when might happen; (c) evidence supporting explanation; (d) limitations of this explanation as being “the whole story” (this is the “critical” part of a critical review). “Whilst normative social influence may explain the conformity that occurs in …, it is an unlikely explanation for memory conformity that may occur when people give individual statements following discussion in the absence of their co-witness. “The suggestion that memory conformity is a result of biased guessing is similar to the informational influence explanation because in both instances …
Within the review, you need to identify patterns, consensus, inconsistencies, discrepancies, problems or gaps based on the body of literature.
Ultimately, the literature review will contribute something new to the topic, so it will not be a discussion that has been repeated or previously established in the past.
For more information on how to paraphrase and summarise effectively, please see the citing and referencing tutorial on the Research and Learning Online website.
In literature reviews, you may want to summarise similar findings by including several sources within a single citation.
The graduate literature review module is particularly useful if you are writing a literature review that forms part of a research project, including an Honours, Master by Research or Ph D project.
This tutorial will cover: The purpose of a stand-alone literature review is to provide a summary, synthesis and critical evaluation of the literature relevant to your specific research question or aim.
The bulk of the chapter was on critically evaluating the different methodologies used in this field so as to identify the appropriate approach for investigating the research question(s). “Approximately 77,000 individuals are arrested in the United States each year based primarily on eyewitness testimony (ref.). Given the pivotal role that eyewitness testimony plays in some trials, it is important to establish whether or not the jury’s faith in this testimony is warranted.” 2.
“One study has shown that eyewitness errors are the most common cause of false convictions (ref.).