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The last step of synthesis involves creating, the highest level of cognitive learning in the most recent revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of learning (Anderson, Krathwohl, Airasian, Cruikshank, Mayer, Pintrich, Raths, & Wittrock, 2001).Creating involves the construction of a new product.Quality evidence-based practice initiatives and nursing care are based on understanding and evaluating the resources and research available, identifying gaps, and building a strong foundation for future work.
Many writers need help learning how to perform this challenging task and there may be some ways to explain and guide this process for struggling writers.
Synthesis requires decision making, analysis, evaluation, and creation of new material, all rather high levels of thinking.
In other words, it involves taking information from a variety of sources, evaluating that information and forming new ideas or insights in an original way.
Building solid synthesis skills is important for nurses, writers, and researchers.
If reviewing research articles, the vertical columns of the matrix might include items such as the research problem/purpose, variables, design, sample, methods, findings, implications, and limitations.
See Table 1 for a literature review matrix table template.
Analyze each part of the reference and identify important information.
Think about conclusions you can draw from the readings and how the references are related.
As you read the references you have gathered, learn what is known about the topic.
Apply your critiquing skills and consider what was reported, what the findings mean in relationship to the topic, and what contribution it makes to the literature.