Should We Do Homework

Should We Do Homework-45
Findings provide valuable insights for research and practice aimed to promote the quality of homework and consequently students’ learning and progress. However, further research is needed to answer the question “What is quality homework? Teachers are responsible for designing and assigning homework, thus our knowledge on their perspectives about this topic and the characteristics of the homework typically assigned is expected to be a relevant contribution to the literature on the quality of homework.The extensive literature on homework suggests the importance of completing homework tasks to foster students’ academic achievement (e.g., Trautwein and Lüdtke, 2009; Hagger et al., 2015; Núñez et al., 2015a; Valle et al., 2016; Fernández-Alonso et al., 2017). Moreover, data on the characteristics of homework could provide valuable information to unveil the complex network of relationships between homework and academic achievement (e.g., Cooper, 2001; Trautwein and Köller, 2003; Trautwein et al., 2009a; Xu, 2010).

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Both homework models provide a relevant theoretical framework for the present study.

Prior research has analyzed the relationship between homework variables, students’ behaviors and academic achievement, and found different results depending on the variables examined (see Trautwein et al., 2009b; Fan et al., 2017).

Teachers discussed the various characteristics of quality homework (e.g., short assignments, adjusted to the availability of students) and shared the characteristics of the homework tasks typically assigned, highlighting a few differences (e.g., degree of individualization of homework, purposes) between these two topics.

Globally, data on the homework tasks assigned were consistent with teachers’ reports about the characteristics of the homework tasks they usually assigned.

To enhance the trustworthiness of the findings, homework tasks assigned by 25% of the participants were analyzed for triangulation of data purposes.

Data were analyzed using thematic analysis for elementary and middle school separately.

Homework is a complex educational process involving a diverse set of variables that each may influence students’ academic outcomes (e.g., Corno, 2000; Trautwein and Köller, 2003; Cooper et al., 2006; Epstein and Van Voorhis, 2012).

Cooper (1989, 2001) presented a model outlining the factors that may potentially influence the effect of homework at the three stages of the homework process (i.e., design of the homework assignment, completion of homework and homework follow-up practices).

The proposal included: homework frequency (i.e., how often homework assignments are prescribed to students), quality, control, and adaptivity.

“Homework frequency” and “adaptivity” are similar to “amount” and “degree of individualization” in Cooper’s model, respectively.

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